[1] Kristian Camilleri. A history of entanglement: Decoherence and the interpretation problem. Studies In History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies In History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 40:290--302, 12 2009. [ bib | DOI ]
[2] Jeffrey Bub. Quantum mechanics as a principle theory. Studies In History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies In History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 31:75--94, 11 1999. [ bib | DOI ]
[3] Wayne M. Itano, D. J. Heinzen, J. J. Bollinger, and D. J. Wineland. Quantum zeno effect. Phys. Rev. A, 41:2295--2300, Mar 1990. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[4] Robert B. Griffiths. Quantum locality. Foundations of Physics, 41:705--733, 2011. [ bib ]
[5] Yang Liu, Lei Ju, Xiao-Lei Liang, Shi-Biao Tang, Guo-Liang Shen Tu, Lei Zhou, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Kai Chen, Teng-Yun Chen, Zeng-Bing Chen, and Jian-Wei Pan. Experimental demonstration of counterfactual quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett., 109:030501, Jul 2012. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[6] Maximilian Schlosshauer, Johannes Kofler, and Anton Zeilinger. A snapshot of foundational attitudes toward quantum mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 44(3):222 -- 230, 2013. [ bib | DOI | http ]
Foundational investigations in quantum mechanics, both experimental and theoretical, gave birth to the field of quantum information science. Nevertheless, the foundations of quantum mechanics themselves remain hotly debated in the scientific community, and no consensus on essential questions has been reached. Here, we present the results of a poll carried out among 33 participants of a conference on the foundations of quantum mechanics. The participants completed a questionnaire containing 16 multiple-choice questions probing opinions on quantum-foundational issues. Participants included physicists, philosophers, and mathematicians. We describe our findings, identify commonly held views, and determine strong, medium, and weak correlations between the answers. Our study provides a unique snapshot of current views in the field of quantum foundations, as well as an analysis of the relationships between these views.
Keywords: Quantum theory, Foundations of quantum theory, History and philosophy of physics
[7] Maximilian Schlosshauer. Quantum decoherence. Physics Reports, 831:1 -- 57, 2019. Quantum decoherence. [ bib | DOI | http ]
Quantum decoherence plays a pivotal role in the dynamical description of the quantum-to-classical transition and is the main impediment to the realization of devices for quantum information processing. This paper gives an overview of the theory and experimental observation of the decoherence mechanism. We introduce the essential concepts and the mathematical formalism of decoherence, focusing on the picture of the decoherence process as a continuous monitoring of a quantum system by its environment. We review several classes of decoherence models and discuss the description of the decoherence dynamics in terms of master equations. We survey methods for avoiding and mitigating decoherence and give an overview of several experiments that have studied decoherence processes. We also comment on the role decoherence may play in interpretations of quantum mechanics and in addressing foundational questions.
Keywords: Quantum decoherence, Quantum-to-classical transition, Quantum measurement, Quantum master equations, Quantum information, Quantum foundations
[8] Leonard Susskind. Copenhagen vs Everett, Teleportation, and ER=EPR. Fortsch. Phys., 64(6-7):551--564, 2016. [ bib | DOI | arXiv ]
[9] Daniela Frauchiger and Renato Renner. Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself. Nature Communications, 9(1):3711, Sep 2018. [ bib | DOI | http ]
Quantum theory provides an extremely accurate description of fundamental processes in physics. It thus seems likely that the theory is applicable beyond the, mostly microscopic, domain in which it has been tested experimentally. Here, we propose a Gedankenexperiment to investigate the question whether quantum theory can, in principle, have universal validity. The idea is that, if the answer was yes, it must be possible to employ quantum theory to model complex systems that include agents who are themselves using quantum theory. Analysing the experiment under this presumption, we find that one agent, upon observing a particular measurement outcome, must conclude that another agent has predicted the opposite outcome with certainty. The agents' conclusions, although all derived within quantum theory, are thus inconsistent. This indicates that quantum theory cannot be extrapolated to complex systems, at least not in a straightforward manner.
[10] N. David Mermin. Hidden variables and the two theorems of john bell. Rev. Mod. Phys., 65:803--815, Jul 1993. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[11] Jean Bricmont and Sheldon Goldstein. Diagnosing the trouble with quantum mechanics. Journal of Statistical Physics, 04 2018. [ bib | DOI ]
[12] N. David Mermin and Rüdiger Schack. Homer nodded: Von neumann's surprising oversight. Foundations of Physics, 48(9):1007--1020, Sep 2018. [ bib | DOI | http ]
We review the famous no-hidden-variables theorem in von Neumann's 1932 book on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics (Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik, Springer, Berlin, 1932). We describe the notorious gap in von Neumann's argument, pointed out by Hermann (Abhandlungen der Fries'schen Schule 6:75--152, 1935) and, more famously, by Bell (Rev Modern Phys 38:447--452, 1966). We disagree with recent papers claiming that Hermann and Bell failed to understand what von Neumann was actually doing.
[13] Dustin Lazarovici and Mario Hubert. How quantum mechanics can consistently describe the use of itself. Scientific Reports, 9(1):470, Jan 2019. [ bib | DOI | http ]
We discuss the no-go theorem of Frauchiger and Renner based on an “extended Wigner's friend” thought experiment which is supposed to show that any single-world interpretation of quantum mechanics leads to inconsistent predictions if it is applicable on all scales. We show that no such inconsistency occurs if one considers a complete description of the physical situation. We then discuss implications of the thought experiment that have not been clearly addressed in the original paper, including a tension between relativity and nonlocal effects predicted by quantum mechanics. Our discussion applies in particular to Bohmian mechanics.
[14] Craig Gidney and Austin Fowler. Efficient magic state factories with a catalyzed |c c z> to 2 | t> transformation. Quantum, 3:135, 04 2019. [ bib | DOI ]
[15] Nike Dattani, Szilard Szalay, and Nick Chancellor. Pegasus: The second connectivity graph for large-scale quantum annealing hardware. CoRR, abs/1901.07636, 2019. [ bib | arXiv | http ]
[16] Spencer Rogers, Yakir Aharonov, Cyril Elouard, and Andrew N. Jordan. Diffraction-based interaction-free measurements. Quantum Studies: Mathematics and Foundations, 7(1):145--153, Mar 2020. [ bib | DOI | http ]
We introduce diffraction-based interaction-free measurements. In contrast with previous work where a set of discrete paths is engaged, good-quality interaction-free measurements can be realized with a continuous set of paths, as is typical of optical propagation. If a bomb is present in a given spatial region---so sensitive that a single photon will set it off---its presence can still be detected without exploding it. This is possible because, by not absorbing the photon, the bomb causes the single photon to diffract around it. The resulting diffraction pattern can then be statistically distinguished from the bomb-free case. We work out the case of single- versus double-slit in detail, where the double-slit arises because of a bomb excluding the middle region.
[17] Tabish Qureshi. Demystifying the delayed-choice quantum eraser, 08 2019. [ bib ]
[18] John G Cramer and Shahriar S Afshar. An experimental test of the trajectory predictions of bohmian quantum mechanics, 2019. [ bib | arXiv ]
[19] Wojciech Hubert Zurek. Decoherence, einselection, and the quantum origins of the classical. Rev. Mod. Phys., 75:715--775, May 2003. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[20] William Marshall, Christoph Simon, Roger Penrose, and Dik Bouwmeester. Towards quantum superpositions of a mirror. Phys. Rev. Lett., 91:130401, Sep 2003. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[21] Wojciech Zurek. Decoherence and the transition from quantum to classical -- revisited. Physics Today, 44, 07 2003. [ bib | DOI ]
[22] Scott Aaronson and Daniel Gottesman. Improved simulation of stabilizer circuits. Phys. Rev. A, 70:052328, Nov 2004. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[23] Stephen L Adler, Angelo Bassi, and Emiliano Ippoliti. Towards quantum superpositions of a mirror: an exact open systems analysiscalculational details. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, 38(12):2715--2727, mar 2005. [ bib | DOI | http ]
We give details of calculations analysing the proposed mirror superposition experiment of Marshall, Simon, Penrose and Bouwmeester within different stochastic models for state vector collapse. We give two methods for exactly calculating the fringe visibility in these models, one proceeding directly from the equation of motion for the expectation of the density matrix, and the other proceeding from solving a linear stochastic unravelling of this equation. We also give details of the calculation that identifies the stochasticity parameter implied by the small-displacement Taylor expansion of the CSL model density matrix equation. The implications of the two results are briefly discussed. Two pedagogical appendices review mathematical apparatus needed for the calculations.
[24] D. A. R. Dalvit, J. Dziarmaga, and W. H. Zurek. Predictability sieve, pointer states, and the classicality of quantum trajectories. Phys. Rev. A, 72:062101, Dec 2005. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[25] James Mattingly. Why eppley and hannah’s thought experiment fails. Physical Review D, 73(6), Mar 2006. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[26] Samuel L. Braunstein and Arun K. Pati. Quantum information cannot be completely hidden in correlations: Implications for the black-hole information paradox. Phys. Rev. Lett., 98:080502, Feb 2007. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[27] Vincent Jacques, Eddy wu, Frédéric Grosshans, François Treussart, Philippe Grangier, Alain Aspect, and Jean-François Roch. Experimental realization of wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315:966--8, 03 2007. [ bib | DOI ]
[28] Shahriar Afshar. Violation of the principle of complementarity and its implications. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 5866, 02 2007. [ bib | DOI ]
[29] Shahriar Afshar. Violation of bohr's complementarity: One slit or both? AIP Conference Proceedings, 810, 02 2007. [ bib | DOI ]
[30] Shahriar S. Afshar, Eduardo Flores, Keith F. McDonald, and Ernst Knoesel. Paradox in wave-particle duality. Foundations of Physics, 37(2):295--305, Feb 2007. [ bib | DOI | http ]
We report on the simultaneous determination of complementary wave and particle aspects of light in a double-slit type “welcher-weg” experiment beyond the limitations set by Bohr's Principle of Complementarity. Applying classical logic, we verify the presence of sharp interference in the single photon regime, while reliably maintaining the information about the particular pinhole through which each individual photon had passed. This experiment poses interesting questions on the validity of Complementarity in cases where measurements techniques that avoid Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and quantum entanglement are employed. We further argue that the application of classical concepts of waves and particles as embodied in Complementarity leads to a logical inconsistency in the interpretation of this experiment.
[31] V. Bu zžek and M. Hillery. Quantum copying: Beyond the no-cloning theorem. Phys. Rev. A, 54:1844--1852, Sep 1996. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[32] B. Kaulakys and V. Gontis. Quantum anti-zeno effect. Phys. Rev. A, 56:1131--1137, Aug 1997. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[33] Asher Peres. Interpreting the quantum world, 1997. [ bib ]
[34] Graeme Mitchison and Richard Jozsa. Counterfactual computation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 457(2009):1175–1193, May 2001. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[35] M. C. Fischer, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, and M. G. Raizen. Observation of the quantum zeno and anti-zeno effects in an unstable system. Phys. Rev. Lett., 87:040402, Jul 2001. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[36] John Bell. Against `measurement'. Physics World, 3(8):33--41, aug 1990. [ bib | DOI | http ]
Surely, after 62 years, we should have an exact formulation of some serious part of quantum mechanics? By ‘exact’ I do not of course mean ‘exactly true’. I mean only that the theory should be fully formulated in mathematical terms, with nothing left to the discretion of the theoretical physicist...until workable approximations are needed in applications. By ‘serious’ I mean that some substantial fragment of physics should be covered. Nonrelativistic ‘particle’ quantum mechanics, perhaps with the inclusion of the electromagnetic field and cut-off interaction, is serious enough. For it covers ‘a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry’ (P A M Dirac 1929 Proc. R. Soc.A 123 714). I mean too, by ‘serious’, that ‘apparatus’ should not be separated off from the rest of the world into black boxes, as if it were not made of atoms and not ruled by quantum mechanics.
[37] B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson. Loophole-free bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres. Nature, 526(7575):682--686, Oct 2015. [ bib | DOI | http ]
A Bell experiment that is `loophole' free---leaving no room for explanations based on experimental imperfections---reveals a statistically significant conflict with local realism
[38] Charles H. Bennett. The thermodynamics of computation---a review. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 21(12):905--940, Dec 1982. [ bib | DOI | http ]
Computers may be thought of as engines for transforming free energy into waste heat and mathematical work. Existing electronic computers dissipate energy vastly in excess of the mean thermal energykT, for purposes such as maintaining volatile storage devices in a bistable condition, synchronizing and standardizing signals, and maximizing switching speed. On the other hand, recent models due to Fredkin and Toffoli show that in principle a computer could compute at finite speed with zero energy dissipation and zero error. In these models, a simple assemblage of simple but idealized mechanical parts (e.g., hard spheres and flat plates) determines a ballistic trajectory isomorphic with the desired computation, a trajectory therefore not foreseen in detail by the builder of the computer. In a classical or semiclassical setting, ballistic models are unrealistic because they require the parts to be assembled with perfect precision and isolated from thermal noise, which would eventually randomize the trajectory and lead to errors. Possibly quantum effects could be exploited to prevent this undesired equipartition of the kinetic energy. Another family of models may be called Brownian computers, because they allow thermal noise to influence the trajectory so strongly that it becomes a random walk through the entire accessible (low-potential-energy) portion of the computer's configuration space. In these computers, a simple assemblage of simple parts determines a low-energy labyrinth isomorphic to the desired computation, through which the system executes its random walk, with a slight drift velocity due to a weak driving force in the direction of forward computation. In return for their greater realism, Brownian models are more dissipative than ballistic ones: the drift velocity is proportional to the driving force, and hence the energy dissipated approaches zero only in the limit of zero speed. In this regard Brownian models resemble the traditional apparatus of thermodynamic thought experiments, where reversibility is also typically only attainable in the limit of zero speed. The enzymatic apparatus of DNA replication, transcription, and translation appear to be nature's closest approach to a Brownian computer, dissipating 20--100kT per step. Both the ballistic and Brownian computers require a change in programming style: computations must be renderedlogically reversible, so that no machine state has more than one logical predecessor. In a ballistic computer, the merging of two trajectories clearly cannot be brought about by purely conservative forces; in a Brownian computer, any extensive amount of merging of computation paths would cause the Brownian computer to spend most of its time bogged down in extraneous predecessors of states on the intended path, unless an extra driving force ofkTln2 were applied (and dissipated) at each merge point. The mathematical means of rendering a computation logically reversible (e.g., creation and annihilation of a history file) will be discussed. The old Maxwell's demon problem is discussed in the light of the relation between logical and thermodynamic reversibility: the essential irreversible step, which prevents the demon from breaking the second law, is not the making of a measurement (which in principle can be done reversibly) but rather the logically irreversible act of erasing the record of one measurement to make room for the next. Converse to the rule that logically irreversible operations on data require an entropy increase elsewhere in the computer is the fact that a tape full of zeros, or one containing some computable pseudorandom sequence such as pi, has fuel value and can be made to do useful thermodynamic work as it randomizes itself. A tape containing an algorithmically random sequence lacks this ability.
[39] Tim Byrnes, Kai Wen, and Yoshihisa Yamamoto. Macroscopic quantum computation using bose-einstein condensates. Phys. Rev. A, 85:040306, Apr 2012. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[40] Onur Hosten, Matthew T. Rakher, Julio T. Barreiro, Nicholas A. Peters, and Paul G. Kwiat. Counterfactual quantum computation through quantum interrogation. Nature, 439(7079):949--952, Feb 2006. [ bib | DOI | http ]
Reset your perceptions for a foray into the quantum world. Counterfactual computation has been proposed as a logical consequence of quantum mechanics. Using appropriate algorithms, the theory goes, it should be possible to infer the outcome of a quantum computation without actually running the computer. Hosten et al. now report experimental confirmation that this does indeed happen. Their all-optical quantum computer was prepared in a superposition of interacting with and not interacting with an algorithm, and they obtained information about the result even when the photon did not interact with the algorithm. Surprisingly, the counterfactual approach worked better than randomly guessing the solution. It should be possible to use a similar approach in other systems, including the trapped ions popular in quantum computing architecture.
[41] Fei Kong, Chenyong Ju, Pu Huang, Pengfei Wang, Xi Kong, Fazhan Shi, Liang Jiang, and Jiangfeng Du. Experimental realization of high-efficiency counterfactual computation. Phys. Rev. Lett., 115:080501, Aug 2015. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[42] Tae-Gon Noh. Counterfactual quantum cryptography. Phys. Rev. Lett., 103:230501, Dec 2009. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[43] Yoon-Ho Kim, Rong Yu, Sergei P. Kulik, Yanhua Shih, and Marlan O. Scully. Delayed “choice” quantum eraser. Phys. Rev. Lett., 84:1--5, Jan 2000. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[44] Bram Gaasbeek. Demystifying the delayed choice experiments, 2010. [ bib | arXiv ]
[45] S. P. Walborn, M. O. Terra Cunha, S. Pádua, and C. H. Monken. Double-slit quantum eraser. Phys. Rev. A, 65:033818, Feb 2002. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[46] Tameem Albash, Itay Hen, Federico M. Spedalieri, and Daniel A. Lidar. Reexamination of the evidence for entanglement in a quantum annealer. Phys. Rev. A, 92:062328, Dec 2015. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[47] Sergio Boixo, V. Smelyanskiy, Alireza Shabani, Sergei Isakov, Mark Dykman, Vasil Denchev, Mohammad Amin, Anatoly Smirnov, M. Mohseni, and Hartmut Neven. Computational role of collective tunneling in a quantum annealer. arxiv, 11 2014. [ bib | http ]
[48] Bas Hensen. Decoherence, the measurement problem, and interpretations of quantum mechanics, 2010. [ bib ]
[49] Daniel Gottesman. Theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation. Phys. Rev. A, 57:127--137, Jan 1998. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[50] B. P. Abbott et al. Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. Phys. Rev. Lett., 116:061102, Feb 2016. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[51] PAUL KWIAT, HARALD WEINFURTER, THOMAS HERZOG, ANTON ZEILINGER, and MARK KASEVICH. Experimental realization of interaction‐free measurementsa. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 755:383 -- 393, 12 2006. [ bib | DOI ]
[52] Avshalom C. Elitzur and Lev Vaidman. Quantum mechanical interaction-free measurements. Foundations of Physics, 23(7):987--997, Jul 1993. [ bib | DOI | http ]
A novel manifestation of nonlocality of quantum mechanics is presented. It is shown that it is possible to ascertain the existence of an object in a given region of space without interacting with it. The method might have practical applications for delicate quantum experiments.
[53] Olaf Nairz, Markus Arndt, and Anton Zeilinger. Quantum interference experiments with large molecules. American Journal of Physics, 71:319--325, 04 2003. [ bib | DOI ]
[54] Dan Macisaac. Bouncing droplets, pilot waves, the double-slit experiment, and debroglie-bohm theory. The Physics Teacher, 55:62--62, 01 2017. [ bib | DOI ]
[55] E. Joos and H. D. Zeh. The emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. Zeitschrift für Physik B Condensed Matter, 59(2):223--243, Jun 1985. [ bib | DOI | http ]
The dependence of macroscopic systems upon their environment is studied under the assumption that quantum theory is universally valid. In particular scattering of photons and molecules turns out to be essential even in intergalactic space in restricting the observable properties by locally destroying the corresponding phase relations. The remaining coherence determines the `classical' properties of the macroscopic systems. In this way local classical properties have their origin in the nonlocal character of quantum states.
[56] Carsten Robens, Wolfgang Alt, Clive Emary, Dieter Meschede, and Andrea Alberti. Atomic “bomb testing”: the elitzur--vaidman experiment violates the leggett--garg inequality. Applied Physics B, 123(1):12, Dec 2016. [ bib | DOI | http ]
Elitzur and Vaidman have proposed a measurement scheme that, based on the quantum superposition principle, allows one to detect the presence of an object---in a dramatic scenario, a bomb---without interacting with it. It was pointed out by Ghirardi that this interaction-free measurement scheme can be put in direct relation with falsification tests of the macro-realistic worldview. Here we have implemented the “bomb test” with a single atom trapped in a spin-dependent optical lattice to show explicitly a violation of the Leggett--Garg inequality---a quantitative criterion fulfilled by macro-realistic physical theories. To perform interaction-free measurements, we have implemented a novel measurement method that correlates spin and position of the atom. This method, which quantum mechanically entangles spin and position, finds general application for spin measurements, thereby avoiding the shortcomings inherent in the widely used push-out technique. Allowing decoherence to dominate the evolution of our system causes a transition from quantum to classical behavior in fulfillment of the Leggett--Garg inequality.
[57] Mark Wilde and Ari Mizel. Addressing the clumsiness loophole in a leggett-garg test of macrorealism. Foundations of Physics - FOUND PHYS, 42, 01 2010. [ bib | DOI ]
[58] A. J. Leggett and Anupam Garg. Quantum mechanics versus macroscopic realism: Is the flux there when nobody looks? Phys. Rev. Lett., 54:857--860, Mar 1985. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[59] Alexei Ourjoumtsev, Hyunseok Jeong, Rosa Tualle-Brouri, and Philippe Grangier. Generation of optical `schrödinger cats' from photon number states. Nature, 448(7155):784--786, Aug 2007. [ bib | DOI | http ]
The Schrödinger's cat thought experiment illustrates the idea that quantum physics allows atoms to remain in superpositions of states. The cat is imagined in a box along with a radioactive atom engineered to release a poison when it decays. In the 'classical' world the cat is either dead or alive but with the 'box' closed, in the quantum world the cat is both dead and alive at the same time. A 'cat' state of freely propagating light is defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states; such states may be useful for quantum information processing and in experiments to test quantum theory. Recent experiments succeeded in producing optical Schrödinger's 'kittens', too small to be of practical use. Now a combination of theory and experiment has been used to develop a protocol that generates squeezed Schrödinger cat states that are large enough to be useful for applications.
[60] Nike Dattani, Szilárd Szalay, and Nick Chancellor. Pegasus: The second connectivity graph for large-scale quantum annealing hardware, 01 2019. [ bib ]
[61] Sabrina Maniscalco, Francesco Francica, Rosa L. Zaffino, Nicola Lo Gullo, and Francesco Plastina. Protecting entanglement via the quantum zeno effect. Phys. Rev. Lett., 100:090503, Mar 2008. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[62] L. Ph. H. Schmidt, J. Lower, T. Jahnke, S. Schößler, M. S. Schöffler, A. Menssen, C. Lévêque, N. Sisourat, R. Taïeb, H. Schmidt-Böcking, and R. Dörner. Momentum transfer to a free floating double slit: Realization of a thought experiment from the einstein-bohr debates. Phys. Rev. Lett., 111:103201, Sep 2013. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[63] Subhashish Barik, Dhiman Kumar Kalita, Bikash K. Behera, and Prasanta K. Panigrahi. Demonstrating quantum zeno effect on ibm quantum experience. unpublished, 2019. [ bib ]
[64] Steven Weinberg. The trouble with quantum mechanics. The New-York review of books, January 2017. [ bib ]
[65] Hugo Defienne, Marco Barbieri, Ian Walmsley, Brian Smith, and Sylvain Gigan. Two-photon quantum walk in a multimode fiber. Science Advances, 2:e1501054--e1501054, 01 2016. [ bib | DOI ]
[66] Wen-Jing Chu, Xiao-Lan Zong, Ming Yang, Guo-Zhu Pan, and Zhuo-Liang Cao. Optical simulation of a popescu-rohrlich box. Scientific Reports, 6(1):28351, Jun 2016. [ bib | DOI | http ]
It is well known that the fair-sampling loophole in Bell test opened by the selection of the state to be measured can lead to post-quantum correlations. In this paper, we make the selection of the results after measurement, which opens the fair- sampling loophole too and thus can lead to post-quantum correlations. This kind of result-selection loophole can be realized by pre- and post-selection processes within the “two-state vector formalism” and a physical simulation of Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) box is designed in linear optical system. The probability distribution of the PR has a maximal CHSH value 4, i.e. it can maximally violate CHSH inequality. Because the “two-state vector formalism” violates the information causality, it opens the locality loophole too, which means that this kind of results selection within “two-state vector formalism” leads to both fair- sampling loophole and locality loophole, so we call it a comprehensive loophole in Bell test. The comprehensive loophole opened by the results selection within “two-state vector formalism” may be another possible explanation of why post-quantum correlations are incompatible with quantum mechanics and seem not to exist in nature.
[67] Michael Dascal. What's left for the neo-copenhagen theorist. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 2019. [ bib | DOI | http ]
Frauchiger and Renner (2018) argue that no ‘single-world’ theory can consistently maintain quantum mechanical predictions for all systems. Following Bub (2017, 2018, 2019), I argue here that this is overstated, and use their result to develop a framework for neo-Copenhagen theories that avoid the problem. To describe the framework I introduce two concepts, ontological information deficits, and information frames, and explore how these may ultimately be fleshed out by the theorist. I then consider some immediate worries that may be raised against the framework, and conclude by looking at how some existing theories may be seen to fit into it.
[68] Kristian Camilleri. A history of entanglement: Decoherence and the interpretation problem. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 40(4):290 -- 302, 2009. On The History Of The Quantum. [ bib | DOI | http ]
This paper examines the interweaving of the history of quantum decoherence and the interpretation problem in quantum mechanics through the work of two physicists—H. Dieter Zeh and Wojciech Zurek. In the early 1970s Zeh anticipated many of the important concepts of decoherence, framing it within an Everett-type interpretation. Zeh has since remained committed to this view; however, Zurek, whose papers in the 1980s were crucial in the treatment of the preferred basis problem and the subsequent development of density matrix formalism, has argued that decoherence leads to what he terms the ‘existential interpretation’, compatible with certain aspects of both Everett's relative-state formulation and the Bohr's ‘Copenhagen interpretation’. I argue that these different interpretations can be traced back to the different early approaches to the study of environment-induced decoherence in quantum systems, evident in the early work of Zeh and Zurek. I also show how Zurek's work has contributed to the tendency to see decoherence as contributing to a ‘new orthodoxy’ or a reconstruction of the original Copenhagen interpretation.
Keywords: Decoherence, Quantum mechanics, Entanglement, Copenhagen interpretation, Everett interpretation, Existential interpretation, H. Dieter Zeh, Wojciech Zurek
[69] Jeffrey Bub. Quantum mechanics as a principle theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 31(1):75 -- 94, 2000. [ bib | DOI | http ]
I show how quantum mechanics, like the theory of relativity, can be understood as a ‘principle theory’ in Einstein's sense, and I use this notion to explore the approach to the problem of interpretation developed in my book Interpreting the Quantum World.
Keywords: Principle Theory, Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, Entangled States, Teleportation, Decoherence.
[70] Howard Wiseman. Grounding bohmian mechanics in weak values and bayesianism. New Journal of Physics, 9:165, 06 2007. [ bib | DOI ]
[71] David Wallace. The quantum measurement problem: State of play. In Dean Rickles, editor, The Ashgate Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Physics. Ashgate, 2007. [ bib ]
[72] Jeffrey Bub and Itamar Pitowsky. Two dogmas about quantum mechanics, 2008. [ bib | arXiv ]
[73] Min Wang. Stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics in complex space. Physical Review Letters - PHYS REV LETT, 79:3319--3322, 11 1997. [ bib | DOI ]
[74] Carlo Rovelli. Zakopane lectures on loop gravity, 2011. [ bib | arXiv ]
[75] N. David Mermin. Annotated interview with a qbist in the making, 2013. [ bib | arXiv ]
[76] Thomas Juffmann, Adriana Milic, Michael Müllneritsch, Peter Asenbaum, Alexander Tsukernik, Jens Tüxen, Marcel Mayor, Ori Cheshnovsky, and Markus Arndt. Real-time single-molecule imaging of quantum interference. Nature Nanotechnology, 7(5):297--300, May 2012. [ bib | DOI | http ]
The observation of interference patterns in double-slit experiments with massive particles is generally regarded as the ultimate demonstration of the quantum nature of these objects. Such matter--wave interference has been observed for electrons1, neutrons2, atoms3,4 and molecules5,6,7 and, in contrast to classical physics, quantum interference can be observed when single particles arrive at the detector one by one. The build-up of such patterns in experiments with electrons has been described as the “most beautiful experiment in physics”8,9,10,11. Here, we show how a combination of nanofabrication and nano-imaging allows us to record the full two-dimensional build-up of quantum interference patterns in real time for phthalocyanine molecules and for derivatives of phthalocyanine molecules, which have masses of 514 AMU and 1,298 AMU respectively. A laser-controlled micro-evaporation source was used to produce a beam of molecules with the required intensity and coherence, and the gratings were machined in 10-nm-thick silicon nitride membranes to reduce the effect of van der Waals forces. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy detected the position of each molecule with an accuracy of 10 nm and revealed the build-up of a deterministic ensemble interference pattern from single molecules that arrived stochastically at the detector. In addition to providing this particularly clear demonstration of wave--particle duality, our approach could also be used to study larger molecules and explore the boundary between quantum and classical physics.
[77] Michael Nauenberg. Comment on qbism and locality in quantum mechanics. American Journal of Physics, 83, 01 2015. [ bib | DOI ]
[78] Kristian Camilleri and Maximilian Schlosshauer. Niels bohr as philosopher of experiment: Does decoherence theory challenge bohr's doctrine of classical concepts? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 49, 02 2015. [ bib | DOI ]
[79] C Časlav Brukner and Anton Zeilinger. Conceptual inadequacy of the shannon information in quantum measurements. Phys. Rev. A, 63:022113, Jan 2001. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[80] Christopher A. Fuchs and Kurt Jacobs. Information-tradeoff relations for finite-strength quantum measurements. Phys. Rev. A, 63:062305, May 2001. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[81] Partha Ghose, A.S Majumdar, S Guha, and J Sau. Bohmian trajectories for photons. Physics Letters A, 290(5):205 -- 213, 2001. [ bib | DOI | http ]
The first examples of Bohmian trajectories for photons have been worked out for simple situations, using the Kemmer–Duffin–Harish-Chandra formalism.
[82] C. A. Fuchs and A. Peres. Quantum-state disturbance versus information gain: Uncertainty relations for quantum information. Phys. Rev., A, 53(4):2038--2045, Apr 1996. [ bib ]
[83] Guido Bacciagaluppi. A conceptual introduction to nelson?s mechanics. This paper is a revised version of the paper as originally published. [ bib | http ]
Nelson?s programme for a stochastic mechanics aims to derive the wave function and the Schroedinger equation from natural conditions on a diffusion process in configuration space. If successful, this pro- gramme might have some advantages over the better-known determin- istic pilot-wave theory of de Broglie and Bohm. The essential points of Nelson?s strategy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on concep- tual issues relating to the role of time symmetry. The main problem in Nelson?s approach is the lack of strict equivalence between the cou- pled Madelung equations and the Schroedinger equation. After a brief discussion, the paper concludes with a possible suggestion for trying to overcome this problem.
Keywords: quantum mechanics, stochastic mechanics, Nelson
[84] N. Kalb, J. Cramer, D. J. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Hanson, and T. H. Taminiau. Experimental creation of quantum zeno subspaces by repeated multi-spin projections in diamond. Nature Communications, 7(1):13111, Oct 2016. [ bib | DOI | http ]
Repeated observations inhibit the coherent evolution of quantum states through the quantum Zeno effect. In multi-qubit systems this effect provides opportunities to control complex quantum states. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that repeatedly projecting joint observables of multiple spins creates quantum Zeno subspaces and simultaneously suppresses the dephasing caused by a quasi-static environment. We encode up to two logical qubits in these subspaces and show that the enhancement of the dephasing time with increasing number of projections follows a scaling law that is independent of the number of spins involved. These results provide experimental insight into the interplay between frequent multi-spin measurements and slowly varying noise and pave the way for tailoring the dynamics of multi-qubit systems through repeated projections.
[85] Dylan Mahler, Lee Rozema, Kent Bonsma-Fisher, Lydia Vermeyden, Kevin Resch, Howard Wiseman, and Aephraim Steinberg. Experimental nonlocal and surreal bohmian trajectories. Science Advances, 2:e1501466--e1501466, 02 2016. [ bib | DOI ]
[86] Herman Batelaan and Akira Tonomura. The aharonov-bohm effects: Variations on a subtle theme. Physics Today - PHYS TODAY, 62, 09 2009. [ bib | DOI ]
[87] Edward Nelson. Review of stochastic mechanics. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 361:012011, 05 2012. [ bib | DOI ]
[88] Travis Norsen. Quantum solipsism and nonlocality. In Mary Bell and ShanEditors Gao, editors, Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem, page 204–237. Cambridge University Press, 2016. [ bib | DOI ]
[89] Sacha Kocsis, Boris Braverman, Sylvain Ravets, Martin Stevens, Richard Mirin, L Shalm, and Aephraim Steinberg. Observing the average trajectories of single photons in a two-slit interferometer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332:1170--3, 06 2011. [ bib | DOI ]
[90] Akira Tonomura, Nobuyuki Osakabe, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Takeshi Kawasaki, Junji Endo, Shinichiro Yano, and Hiroji Yamada. Evidence for aharonov-bohm effect with magnetic field completely shielded from electron wave. Phys. Rev. Lett., 56:792--795, Feb 1986. [ bib | DOI | http ]
[91] Christopher Gordon Timpson. Quantum bayesianism: A study. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 39(3):579 -- 609, 2008. [ bib | DOI | http ]
The Bayesian approach to quantum mechanics of Caves, Fuchs and Schack is presented. Its conjunction of realism about physics along with anti-realism about much of the structure of quantum theory is elaborated; and the position defended from common objections: that it is solipsist; that it is too instrumentalist; that it cannot deal with Wigner's friend scenarios. Three more substantive problems are raised: Can a reasonable ontology be found for the approach? Can it account for explanation in quantum theory? Are subjective probabilities on their own adequate in the quantum domain? The first question is answered in the affirmative, drawing on elements from Nancy Cartwright's philosophy of science. The second two are not: it is argued that these present outstanding difficulties for the project. A quantum Bayesian version of Moore's paradox is developed to illustrate difficulties with the subjectivist account of pure state assignments.
Keywords: Quantum Bayesianism, Subjective probability, System/apparatus divide, Instrumentalism, Quantum ontology, Moore's paradox
[92] Jean Bricmont. La mécanique quantique pour les non-physiciens. [ bib ]
Les problèmes de la mécanique quantique sont envisagés de façon inhabituelle, en partant des théorèmes sur les variables cachées, en soulignant leur impact sur la nonlocalité et sur le fait que ces théorèmes, contrairement à une idée fort répandue, renforcent l’approche due à de Broglie et à Bohm.
[93] E. D. Dahl. Programming with D-Wave: Map Coloring Problem. D-Wave Systems, November 2013. [ bib | .pdf ]
[94] Andrew W. Cross, Lev S. Bishop, John A. Smolin, and Jay M. Gambetta. Open quantum assembly language. arXiv, 2017. [ bib | http ]

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